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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

TABLE 7
Developmental Levels, at the Same Age, of Consecutive Children in Families of Different Size, London, 1953-1960
Number of Children in Family	Birth Ranks	Number of Pairs	Developmental Levela	Difference
2	1st and 2nd	103	1st   + 1.61	
			2nd + 2.98	+1.37
3	1st and 2nd	106	1st   + 0.89	
			2nd + 1.35	+0.46
	2nd and 3rd	79	2nd + 0.06	
			3rd  + 2.26	+2.20
4	1st and 2nd	55	1st   + 0.20	
			2nd + 0.56	+0.36
	2nd and 3rd	63	2nd - 0.32	
			3rd  + 0.46	+0.78
	3rd and 4th	49	3rd  + 0.59	
			4th   + 0.53	+0.06
5 or more	1st and 2nd	44	1st   - 0.32	
			2nd - 0.18	+0.14
	2nd and 3rd	49	2nd + 0.10	
			3rd   + 0.51	+0.41
	3rd and 4th	40	3rd   - 0.22	
			4th   + 0.55	+0.77
	4thand5thb	33	4th   + 0.06	
			5th   - 0.27	-0.33
aDifference in centimeters between the height of a child and average height for age, at or near age 8.
bThe fifth child in eighteen of these families was not the last but had younger sibs following on.
Source: Grant (37, p. 38).
first-borns who remained only children . . . [the findings] suggest that the advent of each additional child to a family acts as a check on the growth of all preceding sibs. .. . (37, p. 38)
Sexual maturation, another aspect of growth and development, is also associated with family size. Tanner, in discussing the phenomena associated with earlier maturation in man (38), the secular (or long-term) trend, has noted:
The  one  thing that  all authors find significantly related to age ut menarche is the number of children in the family. The larger the number                  23.3